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48 Group, also known as 48G or ALL48

AKB48 Group

(Main article: AKB48 Group)
AKB48 Group (AKB48グループ) AKB48 and its national and international sister groups: SKE48, NMB48, HKT48, NGT48, STU48, JKT48, BNK48, MNL48, AKB48 Team SH, AKB48 Team TP and CGM48. Also known as AKB48G.

Sakamichi Series

(Main article: Sakamichi Series)
Sakamichi Series (坂道シリーズ) Nogizaka46 and its sister groups Sakurazaka46, Hinatazaka46, and Yoshimotozaka46.

SNH48 Group

(Main article: SNH48 Group)
SNH48 Group (SNH48グループ) SNH48 and its sister groups: GNZ48, BEJ48 and CKG48. Also known as SNH48G.


(Main article: Team)



Wotas are fans of idol groups.


The word Oshimen (推しメン) comes from "oshiteru member" ("The member you support"). It's the term used to describe a fan's favorite member. Even though oshimen generally refers to only one member, many fans have more than one oshimen per group (The favorite member among the oshimen is usually referred as Kami-oshi). Sometimes fans change their oshimen (Oshihen).


The term Oshi (推し) applies to fans. For example, if a fan's oshimen is Yokoyama Yui, he is a Yui-oshi. Another example is the song "Team B Oshi" (Team B Fan).

DD and MD

DD is short for "Daredemo Daisuki" ("I love anyone"). It's a term used for fans that like many members in a group.

MD is short for "Minna Daisuki" ("I love everyone"). It's a term used for fans that like all the members in a group.


Hako-oshi (箱推し) refers to a fan who supports an entire group rather than a single oshimen from that group.

Light Stick

Light Sticks (サイリウム Psyllium), also called Penlights are used by wota at concerts. They are short plastic rods that glow in the dark. Fans wave them during performances, sometimes in unison, in order to show support for the members.
Usually, a Team or Group's official color is also their light stick color. For example, supporters of Team A wave pink light sticks, since Team A's official color is pink.
In SKE48, each member has her own light stick color combination. For example, Matsui Jurina has asked her fans to wave one orange and one green light stick for her. Some members of other 48 groups also have established light stick color combinations.



(Main article: Captain)
Captain or Leader describes a member that is the authority (and many times the representative) of a certain team or group

Kenkyuusei, Trainee, Kenshusei, Academy and Understudy

(Main article: Kenkyuusei, Trainee, Kenshusei, Academy and Understudy)

Kenkyuusei it's also known as Research Students (研究生) or Trainee or Academy. When girls enter the group, they work as a kenkyuusei until they are promoted to a team. Kenkyuusei receive many of the same perks as promoted members do, but their appearances are usually limited. They usually only perform during the kenkyuusei-only theater shows and as understudies for promoted members when need be.


(Main article: Center)
Center (センター) describes a member that is on the center position in the formation of the members

Kami 7/Top 7

(Main article: Kami 7)
Kami 7 (God 7) describes the 7 most popular members among ALL48 groups

Concurrent Position/Kennin

(Main article: Concurrent Positions)
A concurrent position (兼任, Kennin) is a position where a member of a group hold two member positions in two different groups and two different teams

Transferred Members

(Main article: Transferred Members)
Transference of members can occur when a member of a group is transferred to another sister group, ceasing to hold a position in their original group and team

Support Members

(Main article: Support Member)
A Support Member is a full member of a group who perform in Kenkyuusei Stages, to fill in empty spots and to support the Kenkyuusei. Support Members also sometimes perform in sister groups whose teams are not yet complete.


(Main article: Graduation)
Graduation (卒業, Sotsugyou) refers to when a member that leaves their respective group


(Main article: Hiatus)

Hiatus is a category of members who temporarily ceased their activities from the group due to academic problems, physical problems, contractual problems or personal reasons. Some members are on hiatus due to activities in other groups from survivals shows.

Love Ban and rules

(Main article: Love Ban and rules)
Love Ban (恋愛禁止条例 Ren'ai kinshi jōrei), or most commonly known to fans as the "Golden Rule", is a sacred rule for idols to not have any kind of relationship whatsoever while they are part of the group. Some members have been fired or sanctioned because of this rule, some examples include Minegishi Minami, Sashihara Rino, Xie LeiLei and etc.


(Main article: Stage)



An Akushukai (握手会 - Handshake Event), are events held for every AKB48 group single release, where fans get to meet the members and shake hands with them.

The event started in December 16, 2005, after a problem with a equipment and later became a tradition from the group. After the Iwate Incident in 2014 the event suffered several changes to improve security.

There are two types of Akushukai, Zenkoku and Kobetsu


Zenkoku Akushukai are when a group of around 20 AKB48 group members participate in a handshake event in a large city somewhere in Japan. You shake hands with all of the members in that certain row you choose, instead of an individual member. There is also a mini-live event at these events.

The tickets to the Zenkoku Akushukai come with the Limited-Edition copies of singles.


Kobetsu Akushukai (also known as Dai-Akushukai), are events in which all members of AKB48 and it's sister groups are present. In this setting, fans get approximately 10 seconds per ticket to spend with a specific member. Fans are allowed to combine tickets to spend multiple minutes talking to the girl.

The tickets to the Kobetsu Akushukai come with the Theater-Edition copies of singles. However, you have to apply online and pre-order these copies via Chara-Ani when the handshake applications open. This is usually about 1 month before the release date.


Shamekai (Also known as 2-Shot events) have the participation of all members of AKB48 and it's sister groups. On this events, fans are able to take a picture with their favorite members. Tickets are included on albums, that are usually more expensive than singles. For security reasons, fans are not able to touch the member and, after the Iwate Incident a table was added between the two persons.

Senbatsu Election

(Main article: Senbatsu Election)

Janken Tournament

(Main article: Janken Tournament)

Request Hour

(Main article: Request Hour)

Draft Kaigi

(Main article: Draft Kaigi)

Team Shuffle

Team Shuffles occur when teams exchange several of its members. Currently six major Team Shuffles occurred in AKB48:

Team Shuffles in sister groups include:

Small exchanges, such as Yamada Nana being transferred to Team M and Urano Kazumi, Watanabe Shiho and Hirajima Natsumi being transferred to Team B, are also team shuffles.

In some cases, members' positions were also exchanged due to an overhaul of the team system. This has occured in four groups:


Akimoto Yasushi

(Main article: Akimoto Yasushi)
Akimoto Yasushi (秋元康) is the producer and lyricist from the AKB48 Group and Sakamichi Series.

Wang ZiJie

(Main article: Wang ZiJie)
Wang ZiJie (王子杰) is the producer and chairman from the SNH48 Group.

Theater Manager

Each 48 Group has it's own theater manager or manager:

Some groups don't use the theater manager system, but they have a spokesperson:


(Main article: DH)
DH Co., Ltd. (株式会社DH) is the main agency group and management of AKB48.

Zest, Inc.

Zest, Inc. is the main agency group and management of SKE48.


Showtitle is the main agency group and management of NMB48.

Mercury, Inc.

Mercury, Inc. is the main agency group and management of HKT48.

Flora Co., Ltd.

Flora Co., Ltd. is the main agency group and management of NGT48.


STU is the main agency group and management of STU48.


Vernalossom is the main agency group and management that oversees all overseas sister groups and IZONE.


dentsuXentertainment (formerly JKT48 Project) is the main agency group and management of JKT48.


iAM (formerly BNK48 Office) is the main agency group and management of BNK48 and CGM48. This agency is part of the Yoshimoto Entertainment Thailand.

Hallohallo Entertainment Inc.

Hallohallo Entertainment Inc. (HHE) is the main agency group and management of MNL48.

Shanghai Shangyue Culture Development Co., Ltd.

Shanghai Shangyue Culture Development Co., Ltd. (上海尚越文化發展有限公司) is the main agency group and management of AKB48 Team SH.

Muses & Nymph Entertainment

Muses & Nymph Entertainment (阿克斯娛樂有限公司) is the main agency group and management of AKB48 Team TP.

YAG Entertainment

YAG Entertainment is the main agency group and management of SGO48.

YKBK 48 Entertainment Pvt. Ltd.

YKBK 48 Entertainment Pvt. Ltd. is the main agency group and management of DEL48 and MUB48.

Nogizaka46 Ltd.

Nogizaka46 Ltd. (乃木坂46合同会社) is the main agency group and management of Nogizaka46.

Seed & Flower LLC

Seed & Flower LLC (Seed & Flower合同会社) is the main agency group and management of Sakurazaka46 and Hinatazaka46.


(Main article: STAR48)
STAR48 (絲芭文化傳媒有限公司) is the main agency group and management of SNH48, BEJ48, GNZ48 and CKG48.

See also